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which they have profoundly affected educational life in Middle
Europe and America ever since. Three years after commencing
to lecture in Leipzig, he published an Introduction to General
Pedagogy (1856), Six years later he opened a Pedagogical Seminary
like that of Stoy. In 1864 he published the Foundations of the
Educative Instruction, which was not only his most important work,
but one of the most important educational works of the century.
Finally in 1869 he gathered the adherents of the Herbartian faith
who shared his views into the Association for Scientific Pedagogy.

Even among Herbartians it is still matter for dispute how far
Ziller's teaching is in conformity with that of the master. Stoy
and the more old-fashioned among them condemned many of
his views as unwarranted extensions of the original system.
" What is new in Ziller's proposals," said Stoy, " is not good, and
what is good is not new.'7 The question is largely an academic
one, and might be raised with regard to any man who develops
another's doctrines. There are undoubtedly differences between
Herbart and Ziller, but with the exception of the doctrine of
Culture Epochs, the fundamental ideas of the neo-Herbartianism
initiated by Ziller are all to be found in Herbart. The difference
is in the main a difference of emphasis. All that was most
characteristic in Ziller was due to his intense conviction that—as
Herbart himself had said—morality is the dominant end of
education. For Herbart that was simply a general guiding
principle, difficult to apply directly in practice because of the
limitations of childhood and youth. For Ziller it was a gospel, to
be applied in season and out of season. The aim of education,
he maintained, is the establishment of the Kingdom of God on
earth. Education is nothing if not character-forming.

In working out this view he insisted on subordinating the
subjects of the curriculum which have no obvious moral influence
to those which have. This found its most typical expression in
the idea of a " concentration " of studies in order to produce a
unification of the pupil's interests. "For every grade of instruction
and every kind of school/' he says, " there must be established
a unity of thought. In view of the moral and religious purpose
of education, we must provide a character-forming material, to
serve as a nucleus round which everything else may be arranged
and from which connecting threads may extend in all directions,
so that all parts of the child's circle of thought may be constantly